TDM kinetics
    therapeutic range (mg/L) half life min. time to steady state
Carbamazepine adults 4 - 10 mg/L 5 to 27 h > 2 w
  children   5 to 27 h > 2 w
Digoxin normal renal function 0.5 - 1.0 microg/L 1.6 d 6 d
  GFR 5 mL/min/1.73m2   3.2 d  
  GFR 15 mL/min/1.73m2   3 d  
  GFR 35 mL/min/1.73m2   2.5 d  
  GFR 60 mL/min/1.73m2   2 d  
  GFR 90 mL/min/1.73m2   1.6 d  
Ethosuximide adults   ~ 50-60 h 10 to 13 d
  children   ~ 30 h 6 to 7 d
Phenobarbital adults 10 - 40 mg/L 50 to 120 h 10 to 25 d
  children   40 to 70 h 8 to 15 d
Primidone adults   10 to 12 h 50 to 60 h
  children   10 to 12 h  
Phenytoin pre-term neonate 10 - 20 mg/L 75 ± 64.5 h  
  < 7 days   21 ± 11.6 h  
  children   7.6 ± 3.5 h ~ 1 to 5 wks
  Adults    20 to 40 h ~ 1 to 5 wks
  Pregnant females   decreased  
Theophylline pemature neonates   ~ 30 h ~ 120 h
  neonates 5 - 10 mg/L ~ 24 h  
  children 1 to 9 y   2 to 10 h 1 to 2 d
  adolescents 12 to 16 y   mean 4.4 h  
  Adults (non smokers) 10 - 20 mg/L 4 to 16 h ~ 2 d
  Adults (smokers)      
  Heart or liver failure   20 to 30 h  
Valproic acid adults   6 to 17 h 30 to 85 h
  children   4 to 14 h 20 to 70 h

Page updated: 20/04/10 | Updated by: Dr. Julian Barth